Thursday, 29 August 2013

NFC near field communication

What is NFC?

Near Field Communication (NFC) technology makes life easier and more convenient for consumers around the world by making it simpler to make transactions, exchange digital content, and connect electronic devices with a touch.

Near Field Communication (NFC) is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically requiring a distance of 4cm or less to initiate a connection. NFC allows you to share small payloads of data between an NFC tag and an Android-powered device, or between two Android-powered devices.

Tags can range in complexity. Simple tags offer just read and write semantics, sometimes with one-time-programmable areas to make the card read-only. More complex tags offer math operations, and have cryptographic hardware to authenticate access to a sector. The most sophisticated tags contain operating environments, allowing complex interactions with code executing on the tag. The data stored in the tag can also be written in a variety of formats, but many of the Android framework APIs are based around a NFC Forum standard called NDEF (NFC Data Exchange Format).

NFC Basics
This document describes how Android handles discovered NFC tags and how it notifies applications of data that is relevant to the application. It also goes over how to work with the NDEF data in your applications and gives an overview of the framework APIs that support the basic NFC feature set of Android.
Advanced NFC
This document goes over the APIs that enable use of the various tag technologies that Android supports. When you are not working with NDEF data, or when you are working with NDEF data that Android cannot fully understand, you have to manually read or write to the tag in raw bytes using your own protocol stack. In these cases, Android provides support to detect certain tag technologies and to open communication with the tag using your own protocol stack.

A standards-based connectivity technology, NFC harmonizes today's diverse contactless technologies, enabling current and future solutions in areas such as:  
  • Access control
  • Consumer electronics
  • Healthcare
  • Information collection and exchange
  • Loyalty and coupons
  • Payments
  • Transport

Developers can learn more about NFC in the section on interoperability.

Key Benefits of NFC

NFC provides a range of benefits to consumers and businesses, such as:
  • Intuitive: NFC interactions require no more than a simple touch
  • Versatile: NFC is ideally suited to the broadest range of industries, environments, and uses
  • Open and standards-based: The underlying layers of NFC technology follow universally implemented ISO, ECMA, and ETSI standards
  • Technology-enabling: NFC facilitates fast and simple setup of wireless technologies, such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, etc.)
  • Inherently secure: NFC transmissions are short range (from a touch to a few centimeters)
  • Interoperable: NFC works with existing contactless card technologies
  • Security-ready: NFC has built-in capabilities to support secure applications

Friday, 16 August 2013

Secure E-Mail Services Shuttered over Fears of Government PRISM Reprisals

Secure E-Mail Services Shuttered over Fears of Government PRISM Reprisals

Image courtesy of Bev Sykes, via Flickr
Revelations of the U.S. National Security Agency’sPRISM program continue to have worldwide ripple effects. Nearly two months after U.S. federal prosecutors charged NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden with espionage and theft of government property for blowing the lid off of the clandestine surveillance program, the company that secured Snowden’s electronic communications with journalists and international officials has shut down its encrypted e-mail services.
Texas-based Lavabit LLC announced August 8 that it was suspending operations due to unspecified legal pressures. The move prompted another company, Silent Circle, to likewise drop its own encrypted e-mail service on August 9 before becoming the target of similar legal scrutiny. Meanwhile, concerns over the NSA’s snooping have prompted the opposite reaction in Germany, where two of that country’s biggest Internet service providers—Deutsche Telekom AG and United Internet AG—say they will now encrypt customers’ emails by default.
In a note posted to Lavabit’s homepage, owner and operator Ladar Levison suggested that a long, secretive turn of events led to his decision to scuttle the service. “As things currently stand, I cannot share my experiences over the last six weeks, even though I have twice made the appropriate requests,” the site says. He also notes that, a “favorable decision” by the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals would allow him to “resurrect Lavabit as an American company.”
Levison launched Lavabit in 2004 under the name Nerdshack. By 2009 the site boasted 140,000 registered users with more than 260,000 email addresses. Most of those accounts belonged to individual users, although the company did provide corporate e-mail services to about 70 companies.
Lavabit developed its secure e-mail platform around asymmetric encryption. This means that incoming e-mail messages were encrypted before being saved on the company’s servers and could be decrypted only by someone with a password for that e-mail account.
Most e-mail programs support encryption via Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol, developed in the mid-1990s as a cryptographic tool to encode communications over TCP/IP networks. SSL uses a cryptographic system with two keys—a public key to encrypt the data and a private key, known only to a message’s recipient, to decipher it. SSL encrypts messages sent from the user’s machine to their ISP. As messages move through the core of the Internet, they are usually unencrypted, however. “Unless somebody is doing something intentionally to put encryption on the messages, the messages are decrypted at each hop along the way and are visible there,” cryptographer Paul Kocher, president and chief scientist of Cryptography Research,recently told Scientific American.
Silent Circle posted a note to its homepage Friday implying the company has shut down its secure Silent Mail service—which encrypts messages sent between Silent Circle customers—before being forced to comply with any government subpoenas, warrants, security letters or other legal demands for customer information. Phil Zimmermann, creator of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) program to encrypt and decrypt e-mail messages, co-founded the Washington, D.C., company, which claims to have its network located in Canada.
Silent Circle points out in the same note that its “end-to-end” cryptography meant that it had “nil” exposure to customer data. Yet the company’s FAQ states that, if the company is managing a client’s encryption keys (the other option would be for customers to manage their own keys), then Silent Circle can hand over client messages to law enforcement when legally compelled to do so. Silent Circle will continue to offer secure voice and text services because it has control over the infrastructure supporting them and can guarantee that messages were not intercepted or tampered with en route, the BBC reported Friday.
Zimmerman’s company apparently anticipated run-ins with the law. A Web page recounting Silent Circle’s history states: “We believe in honest transparency, and protecting individual and business privacy. We will post the requests we get from Government, Law Enforcement and worldwide legal entities for users data.” It goes on to declare: “We know that we’ll have a target painted on us from day one.”
The NSA crafted PRISM as a means for collecting data on people suspected of plotting terrorist attacks, spying or other forms of malfeasance. The government claims that information gathered via PRISM has disrupted dozens of potential terrorist attacks. Yet the program’s legacy is having other, likely unintended consequences on electronics communication. Lavabit’s Levison notes that, unless changes are made to current U.S. surveillance policies, “I would _strongly_ recommend against anyone trusting their private data to a company with physical ties to the United States.”

Sunday, 7 April 2013

10 best blog topics that generate maximum traffic and earn more

top 10 topics to blog aboutThe thought of becoming an entrepreneur and building your own empire in no time was a dream few years back, but with online money making opportunities today, it is all possible. The urge to start a blog and becoming rich and popular at the same time is increasing day by day, resulting in producing thousands of Newbie Bloggers each week. However, it greatly disappoints them when soon they realize that their blog would hardly generate any revenue for them, forcing them to leave this domain to earn money.
It’s important to figure out about the most productive niches that generate maximum revenue, even before planning to start a blog. What happens for example is, a person might be a good painter and plans to share his painting techniques and his creations on his blog. The idea is appreciable if we talk in terms of talent, but such a blog would hardly attract any traffic. The reason behind this is, the global change is making lives busy where people do not have time to read about your skills, but are in search of fulfilling their own thirst.

Many of our readers have been complaining since a long time that their blogs are not paying them anything, so here is something they need to check about their blogs.
If you are looking forward to high profits in return of easy blogging, you must first know which niche to choose as your blog topic.


health related blogsAs the world going online, people are now interested to find solutions for their health related matters online. This blogging niche enjoys an open traffic where there are no barriers of culture, state or society. A person from Pakistan would be equally interested to know about the remedy for losing his weight as a person from USA. If you have a command on medicine and fitness related issues and think you have the potentials to provide people worth-reading and then worth-following tips regarding fitness and Health, then you will see a huge traffic following your blog in no time.


learn about fashioon on blogsHealth and fitness blogs are mostly visited only by those who are either going through some disease or are way to curious to learn tips for their fitness. But above health blogs, comes Fashion. Knowing about health is need but learning all about fashion is addiction. If you have got that glamorous side of yours and enjoy learning and sharing about Fashion trends leading the society, you can really earn huge money with it. People all over the world find internet as the most easiest access to know about fashion and follow it.


relationship blogsRecent statistics have shown that 90% of the people have an emotional part in their personalities that leaves an effect on the entire life per fifteen hours a day as an average. People find internet as the most secure way to improve their relationships, believing in the idea of self-aiding learning online about professional working relationships, love relationships and getting advises from people around the globe. According to the latest reveals, blogs with this domain enjoy huge traffic.


finance blogsMan’s love for Money will last till the end of this world. This common nature of people to learn ways to double their money forces them to search about such methods. Blogs having a domain related to ways of improving their finances and helping them setting up their own business, telling ways to manage their money always appeal them, further generating good traffic for a blog.

6. Question and Answer Blogs

question and answer blogsLet us go back to school to make the concept clear. Which teacher you preferred to visit the most in times of need, the one who always had a solution for your problems or the one who used to tell you to “come later”? We all have same views about it I hope. Similarly, starting a blog with a niche of active question and answer session will soon generate considerable revenue for you. People look forward to places where they can be listened and can get their queries been answered. Just like, you can start a question and answer blog and make real dollars with it!

5. Celebrities

all about celebrities on blogsThe easiest- yet the most interesting niche to adopt in a blogging career is undoubtedly to start writing reviews, updates, latest photos and everything associated with them, is the celebrities. The best part about this domain is, all you need to have as your qualifications to rule is your interest in entertainment world

4. Buy and sell

buy and sell blogsOnline shopping has taken up the physical market with a great pace. Now you choose all what you want to buy from your living room and get it delivered at your doorsteps. If you have the ability to work like a middle man, establishing a forum similar to, you can attract bulk of visitors each day.

3. Social Media

social media blogsThis post will be too less to describe the power of social media at this time of life where one might not have a bank account but must be having three or four accounts on different social networking websites. Due to the huge number of Social media users, the sites that write about every single happening on Social media get the most of the benefit. Take an example of What do you think is the reason for the success of this site? It can’t be uniqueness, there are much better unique sites available than it, it can’t also be a good grammar, as even I have been noticing grammatical mistakes in the posts plenty of times. Then what makes it a hit? It’s the domain of the blog! People want to know each and everything about their social media. Therefore, picking this niche to start a blog is one of the best choices available among the most productive niches.

2. Technology

technology has been making Millions of Dollars each year by simply cashing its niche. In this Hi-tech world, staying up to date with the latest technology been revealed in the market is mandatory. Moreover, the biggest benefit of choosing this niche as your blogging topic is , when a new gadget/device is launched in to the market, it automatically creates a hype, big enough to bring visitors to your blog to know more about it. This happens every time-little too often, ensuring a continuous inflow of money.

1. Blogging Tips

bloggingtips websitesBlogging has recently become too popular even in the developing countries. The best sources to learn for the new bloggers are the blogs themselves. Just like MBT, blogs having a domain of sharing tips and tricks, making blogging easy with tutorials and everything related to blogging world are earning considerably large at this time. However, such domains require you to have the capability and knowledge about web designing and web development so that whatever content you share, it gains reliability for you from your readers.
The decisions you take on initial stages while starting a business, decides the future of it, therefore always play it safe and think about your potentials and pick the domain that goes most smooth with it.
All the best

Monday, 1 April 2013

Six ways to make money via blogging

                         There are so many ways of adding advertisements to your blog. Choosing the right method depends on what type of ads you want shown on your blog and which online advertising program you want to sign up with. Some of the most popular ad publishing companies for blog advertising include Google AdSense and Yahoo Publisher but there are many more options available. Once you have chosen which publishers to use to add ads to your blog you can sign up for their service through their website and follow their requirements for displaying ads on your blog.

Google AdSense

  1. 1
    Place contextual ads on your blog using Google AdSense. Contextual ads work by first determining what type of content is shown on your blog and then delivering ads that match the nature of the content (for example, if your blog is about real estate the contextual ads may be about real estate agents). You don't have to worry about which specific ads to show because Google does that for you.

Yahoo Publisher

  1. 2
    Use Yahoo Publisher as an alternate to Google AdSense if you have a blog that gets a lot of traffic (high number of visitors each day). Yahoo Publisher only displays contextual ads on websites and blogs that have high traffic but the revenue is generally considered to be higher than Google AdSense, so if you qualify to place ads on your blog through Yahoo Publisher it can prove beneficial for you.


  1. 3
    Take a risk by using Adbrite for contextual ads if you feel the risk is worth taking. There is a risk involved because even though using Adbrite can increase the income that you earn through your blog, many of the ads displayed by Adbrite are for gambling and promiscuous businesses. Such ads may offend your blog viewers and decrease your blog traffic, depending on the nature of your blog content and target audience.

Advertising Networks

  1. 4
    Pick specifically which ads you want to display on your blog through advertising networks. You have to have very high blog traffic to be considered by advertising networks (at least a few thousand visitors per day) but if you qualify, you can depend on a more steady income coming through well-established advertising corporations that usually pay handsomely to place ads on your blog. You can also provide information directly about your blog and select what type of advertisements you want shown. Here are some advertising networks that you can look into for adding advertisements on your blog.
    • Blogads
    • BuzzMachine
    • Federated Media
    • TechCrunch

Affiliation Advertisements

  1. 5
    Add affiliation ads to your blog if you feel that your blog visitors would be interested in purchasing products from another website. For example, if your blog is about books you could join Amazon's Associates Program, which is an affiliate program that will pay you every time someone goes to Amazon using an advertisement on your blog and makes a purchase. Usually you are paid a percentage of the purchase amount, similar to how a salesman earns commission for selling products that are offered for sale by other companies.

Links Within Blog Text

  1. 6
    Sign up for services such as Text Link Ads if you want to get paid for text links on your blog. For example, let's say you wrote a blog post about auto repair. Text Link Ads or a similar online advertising program may decide to pay you for changing the words "auto repair" in your blog into a text link that leads to the website of the auto repair company that is paying for the advertisement. 1 great benefit of text link ads is that they don't use any additional space on your blog design to add ads to your blog, you merely change the text that already exists into a link
  2. *infollinks etc.

Ad publishers for the advertisers 

                    Apart from the Google adsense and yahoo publishers there are lots of ad publishers to advertise various products and services through various websites and blogs. based on the topic advertisers have the freedom to choose which is the best website or blog to place there ad's. one of the important thing to be noted is the traffic of the blog/website which you are going to place your ad. then only get the maximum viewers to your ad. some of the Ad publishing sites are as follows.

                  Infolinks etc.

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Thursday, 28 March 2013

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